What Is Organic Chemistry? 

Organic Molecules: Carbs, Proteins, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Phospholipid Structure
GEN BIOCELL BIOMICROBIOLOGYHOMESCHOOL SCIENCEINSTRUCTORSABOUT SPO



Organic molecules are the chemicals of life, compounds composed of more than one type of element, that are found in, and produced by, living organisms. 
Article Summary: What substances are within the realm of organic chemistry? This article covers the main categories of naturally occurring organic macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids & Nucleic Acids
Lactose Chemical Structure
Lactose, a 
disaccharide made of glucose and galactose.
SPO VIRTUAL CLASSROOMS
The feature that distinguishes an organic from inorganic molecule is that organic molecules contain carbon-hydrogen bonds, whereas inorganic molecules do not. The four major classes of organic molecules include carbohydrates, proteins,  lipids and nucleic acids.​

Carbohydrates
The term carbohydrate is actually a descriptor of what these molecules are composed of; carbon hydrates, in a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule (CH2O)n. The word saccharide is a handy synonym for carbohydrate, because it can be preceded with a prefix indicating the size of the molecule (mono-, di-, poly-):

  • Monosaccharides: The simplest, single sugars. Examples: Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides.

  • Disaccharides: Double sugars that are a combination of two monosaccharides. Example: Sucrose (table sugar) is made of glucose and fructose together.

Instructor's Corner
Virtual Cell Biology
Classroom





The Virtual Cell Biology Classroom provides a wide range of free educational resources including Power Point Lectures, Study Guides, Review Questions and Practice Test Questions.
Endomembrane System of a Eukaryotic Cell, Mariana Ruiz
Continued ... 
Proteins & Nucleic Acids
Go to PAGE 2 >
​Page last updated: 8/2015
Instructor's Corner
CLASS NOTES 
from the free STEM 
education site 
Science Prof Online

FREE Printable 
Organic Macromolecule
study aid.

See the 
Organic Chemistry Lecture PPT for info that will help you complete this table.

This article has 
3 pages: 
1  . 2 .  3
  • Polysaccharides: These are polymers composed of several sugars. They can be one type of monomer (many of same monosaccharide) or mixture of monomers. Example: Starch is a polysaccharide composed of many glucose molecules.

Amylose, a linear polymer of glucose can be made of several thousands of glucose units. Amylose and amylopectin are the two components of starch.
Amylose, a linear polymer of glucose can be made of thousands of glucose units. Amylose and amylopectin are the two components of starch.